8.7.13

Artikel

Diposkan oleh vhia di 03.58 0 komentar


PAPERS
MACRO ECONOMICS


IMPROVING ECONOMIC DEVELOP TOURISM INDUSTRY INDONESIA



Name: Novia septiningsih
Class: 4ea01
NPM: 12209019



 
UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA
ATA 2012/2013
Juny 2013




I.       INTRODUCTION
A.  Background
           
Indonesia as a country with thousands of islands that have natural and diverse population consisting of hundreds of ethnic culture, and customs are held. Indeed Indonesia has the potential of natural and cultural attractions are great travelers so that always invites the world to come. The potential to be developed as an economic activity that can generate foreign exchange.
Basically the goal to develop the country's tourism industry is to increase state revenue income. As for profits - profits that are expected with the development of tourism infrastructure in a region or an area such as a rising industry, especially those related to tourist services such as activities of travel agencies, transportation, hospitality, restaurant, arts and culture of the area. Therefore needs further promotion.
Tourism promotion is needed in an effort to attract more tourists to Indonesia. Grace of the natural beauty of Mother Earth to be superior in the eyes of foreign tourists as well archipelago. Like a product, the packaging must be beautiful Indonesian tourism promotion in order to attract attention. This looks great capital has not been matched with a maximum promotional efforts. According Esthy Reko Astuti, Director General of Tourism Marketing Kemenparekraf, a targeted promotion strategy to market the tourism product, one of Indonesia's natural potential. However, unfortunately several factors, such as access and facilities, inadequate hinder the development of tourism in Indonesia.
Need attention from other related sectors were very influential. For example, from the central and local governments that have tourism potential. If you would like to promote a local area but no less care and tourism as their primary sector, it will be difficult to develop. Thus the necessary awareness of the central government and local governments are also not behind the private sector to develop tourism development. It is important for a balance carried people's lives, both economically, socio-cultural, and other sectors.

B. Problems
1.Why tourism can boost the economy of Indonesia?
2.How to develop the tourism industry in Indonesia?


C. Destination
To find out how to develop the tourism industry in Indonesia so as to improve the economy of Indonesia

D. Benefit
1.Encourage regional development in order to increase the income of the people and the government
2.Increase the number of tourists both domestic and foreign
3.Increasing the competitiveness of the national tourism businesses
4.Understanding of the scope of the macro economy, especially in Indonesia.
5. Preserve the culture and customs in Indonesia and introduce the world to the international
6. Useful for writers and readers to gain knowledge and information about the tourism industry and increase foreign exchange.

E. Approach
1.Gather information from various sources.
2. Literature approach.


II.    DISCUSSION
A.   Indonesia's tourism industry to boost the economy

Various international organizations such as the UN, World Bank and World Tourism Organization (WTO), has recognized that tourism is an integral part of human life, especially regarding social and economic activities. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), cumulatively, the tourism sector is able to employ about 230 million jobs and contributes hundreds of billions of dollars to the economy in many countries. Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, in the year 2010, the number of tourist arrivals to Indonesia from 20 entrances, some 7 million people (up approximately 10.74% over the previous year), with the average stay for 7-8 days and average average expenditure of approximately U.S. $ 995 (in 2009). These data indicate that in the perspective of national development, the tourism sector has contributed significantly to the increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), especially when associated with Hospitality And Restaurant Sectors.
Various strategies and promotion of tourism product development both on public and private. From the government is necessary to change the policy priorities so that the role of facilitator can be optimized to anticipate this. On the other hand there is the portion of the activities that must be prepared and implemented by the private sector, which has the sense of business because it is the nature of business-oriented activities. By simple division such promotional efforts will be taken to the steps where the central government to the country-image promotion, regional destination promotion perform in accordance with their respective areas of excellence, while private industry or product promotion perform each industry. Governmental duties primarily as a facilitator for the activities undertaken by the private sector tourism may grow more rapidly. Facilitator's role here can be interpreted as creating a comfortable climate for perpetrators of cultural activities and tourism can be developed efficiently and effectively.
Synergistic cooperation between local governments, the private sector and the community in developing the tourism sector in the region, so as to realize a good tourism management in all areas of support, so it can have a significant impact on tourist attraction, which in turn will increase revenue, income communities, and also contributed to the increase in foreign exchange. Local Governments should give special attention to improving the success of the tourism sector, such as by allocating budget funds proportionate to finance the construction of tourism infrastructure (such as roads, electricity, and telecommunications), facilitate public and private sector in managing tourism potential (such as cultural tourism and travel nature), as well as the promotion and marketing of tourism potential in the region. Synergy of three pillars of tourism management, the local government, private sector, and communities, is a major force in improving the development of the tourism sector. Weakness role of one of the pillars, would greatly hamper efforts to develop tourism.

B. How to improve Indonesia Tourism
Various methods Kemenparekraf to introduce Indonesia to the world community. Currently, Indonesia is aggressively promoting tourism through international events. For the sake of expanding, formed the Indonesian Tourism Promotion Board (ARDI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy (Kemenparekraf). Chairman of ARDI, Yanti Sukamdani have 3 final step in maximizing the promotion of tourism, namely:


1. Promotion during low season
Months flooded or high tourist season is during the holidays, especially school holidays. Meanwhile, the tourism business rate would still walk despite low season. Chairman of ARDI, Yanti Sukamdani explained several ways to enliven tourism low season time by giving cheap tickets for onward travel and discounts are also interesting from the hotel. A lonely traveler season, usually lasts from late January to March and October to early December. At that moment, these hotels give discounts and promos are interesting, to keep attract tourists.

2. Creative Economy
Batik is known to foreign tourists. Following batik, woven cloth began to manifest themselves. Not only that, carvings and wood carvings typical of Indonesia also appeared to attract the attention of the tourists. Various kinds of handicrafts typical of the region could be a trigger for tourism. In addition to crafts, fairs and international events was the main attraction for tourists. Art exhibitions and theater performances are often visited by the actors and art lovers from abroad. Indirectly, their arrival also bring in foreign exchange for the country.



3. Green tourism
Currently, green tourism or eco-tourism is booming in the traveler. Traveling with responsibility for nature, many people have become conscious. To increase the awareness, ARDI will be more incentive to promote this type of tourism. In addition to raising awareness of tourists, ecotourism is also very helpful natural beauty. With the subdued nature, many tourists who will continue to fall in love with Indonesia. As a tropical country with diverse tourism destination, Indonesia could attract foreign tourists (tourists) and domestic (domestic tourists). However, tourism is still a lot of infrastructure that needs to be fixed. On that basis, the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy (Kemenparekraf) invite other ministries to improve the tourism infrastructure of the country.

4. Technology and tourism
Internet is not simply a mere technological findings, but also a teacher to educate people find various information (including information on tourism) he wants, so it makes life a lot easier. Travelers now can not wait for the information that is usually provided through a travel service bureau or other organization. They would rather look for yourself what's on his mind so as to ensure that the products chosen are the best.
With the internet, the information needed for a trip is available mainly in the form of the World Wide Web or the Web. Consumers can now directly related to the resources without going through intermediaries. It must be believed that the Web is an ideal channel and a powerful tool for promoting a tourist destination, with a very low cost. But in this competition that must be considered, as it is our main weapon, is the quality of the information itself. Because tourists will base their decision to visit a tourist attraction only to the range of information available to them on the Web. Once they got the wrong information then the advantages of this technology will be of no use.


III. CONCLUSION
The Indonesian tourism players should take careful planning and focused to capture opportunities that will be passing in our region. Exploiting opportunities should be made ​​through a "re-positioning" the existence of each activity since the beginning of tourism investment, promotion, creation of tourism products, international marketing network setup, and preparation of qualified human resources. All of this must be prepared to meet the international standards so as to be more competitive and attractive, compared with similar activities from countries around Indonesia.
Besides the tourism sub-sector was expected to move the people's economy, because the sector is considered the most prepared in terms of facilities, infrastructure and facilities compared to other business sectors. This expectation is developed in a community empowerment strategy through the development of a community-based tourism or community-based tourism



Daftar Pustaka

Huda, Syamsul 2009. “Analisis Penerimaan Devisa sector pariwisata dan factor – factor yang mempengaruhi di provinsi Jawa Timur”. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen Vol.7 No.1 Hal 130 – 316
Joehastanti, Jenny. 2012. “Strategi Pemasaran Wisata Alam Untuk Meningkatkan Kunjungan Wisatawan Di Kawasan Wisata Kabupaten Kediri”. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Vol.1 No.2 Hal 61 – 73
Raharjana, Destha Titi. 2012, “Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Perencanaan dan Pengelolaan Pariwisata”. Jurnal Nasional Pariwisata Vol.4 No.1 Hal 12 – 25
Wahab, S. 2003. Manajemen Kepariwisataan, Cetakan Keempat.Jakarta: PT Pradnya Paramita



30.11.12

Teori Etika Bisnis

Diposkan oleh vhia di 00.54 2 komentar

Etika, kata-kata ini sering kita dengar dalam artian sebagai sebuah perilaku dari seseorang, baik itu buruk ataupun baik. Etika itu sendiri dari kata ethos (bahasa Yunani) yang berarti karakter, watak kesusilaan atau adat. Perkembangan etika yaitu Studi tentang kebiasaan manusia berdasarkan kesepakatan, menurut ruang dan waktu yang berbeda, yang menggambarkan perangai manusia dalam kehidupan pada umumnya Menurut Kamus Besar Bhs. Indonesia (1995) Etika adalah Nilai mengenai benar dan salah yang dianut suatu golongan atau masyarakat. Etika adalah Ilmu tentang apa yang baik dan yang buruk, tentang hak dan kewajiban moral. Menurut Maryani & Ludigdo (2001) “Etika adalah Seperangkat aturan atau norma atau pedoman yang mengatur perilaku manusia, baik yang harus dilakukan maupun yang harus ditinggalkan yang di anut oleh sekelompok atau segolongan masyarakat atau profesi”.

Fungsi Etika
ü  Sarana untuk memperoleh orientasi kritis berhadapan dengan pelbagai moralitas yang membingungkan.
ü   Etika ingin menampilkanketrampilan intelektual yaitu ketrampilan untuk berargumentasi secara rasional dan kritis.
ü   Orientasi etis ini diperlukan dalam mengabil sikap yang wajar dalam suasana pluralisme

MACAM-MACAM ETIKA
Ada dua macam etika yang harus kita pahami bersama dalam menentukan baik dan buruknya prilaku manusia :

1.      ETIKA DESKRIPTIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha meneropong secara kritis dan rasional sikap dan prilaku manusia dan apa yang dikejar oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika deskriptif memberikan fakta sebagai dasar untuk mengambil keputusan tentang prilaku atau sikap yang mau diambil.
2.      ETIKA NORMATIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha menetapkan berbagai sikap dan pola prilaku ideal yang seharusnya dimiliki oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika normatif memberi penilaian sekaligus member norma sebagai dasar dan kerangka tindakan yang akan diputuskan.
Etika secara umum dapat dibagi menjadi :
3.      ETIKA UMUM, berbicara mengenai kondisi-kondisi dasar bagaimana manusia bertindak secara etis, bagaimana manusia mengambil keputusan etis, teori-teori etika dan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar yang menjadi pegangan bagi manusia dalam bertindak serta tolak ukur dalam menilai baik atau buruknya suatu tindakan. Etika umum dapat di analogkan dengan ilmu pengetahuan, yang membahas mengenai pengertian umum dan teori-teori.
4.     ETIKA KHUSUS, merupakan penerapan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar dalam bidang kehidupan yang khusus. Penerapan ini bisa berwujud : Bagaimana saya mengambil keputusan dan bertindak dalam bidang kehidupan dan kegiatan khusus yang saya lakukan, yang didasari oleh cara, teori dan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar. Namun, penerapan itu dapat juga berwujud : Bagaimana saya menilai perilaku saya dan orang lain dalam bidang kegiatan dan kehidupan khusus yang dilatarbelakangi oleh kondisi yang memungkinkan manusia bertindak etis : cara bagaimana manusia mengambil suatu keputusan atau tidankan, dan teori serta prinsip moral dasar yang ada dibaliknya.

Antara  etika  dengan  etiket  terdapat persamaan  yaitu :
ü  Etika  dan etiket menyangkut perilaku manusia. Istilah tersebut dipakai mengenai manusia tidak mengenai binatang karena binatang tidak mengenal etika maupun  etiket.
ü  Kedua-duanya mengatur perilaku manusia secara normatif artinya memberi norma bagi perilaku manusia dan dengan demikian menyatakan apa yag harus dilakukan dan apa yang tidak boleh dilakukan. Justru karena sifatnya normatif maka kedua istilah tersebut sering dicampuradukkan.

Sedangkan perbedaannya yaitu:
ü  Etika adalah niat, apakah perbuatan tersebut boleh dilakukan sesuia dengan pertimbangan baik atau buruk sebagai akibatnya, sedangkan eyiket adalah cara melakukan perbuatan benar sesuai dengan yang diharapkan;
ü   Etika adalah batiniah sedangkan etiket lahiriah;
ü  Etika bersifat absolut, sedangkan etiket bersifat relative;
ü  Etika berlaku ada saat ada atau tidaknya orang lain, sedangkan etiket butuh orang lain;

Sumber :


8.7.13

Artikel



PAPERS
MACRO ECONOMICS


IMPROVING ECONOMIC DEVELOP TOURISM INDUSTRY INDONESIA



Name: Novia septiningsih
Class: 4ea01
NPM: 12209019



 
UNIVERSITAS GUNADARMA
ATA 2012/2013
Juny 2013




I.       INTRODUCTION
A.  Background
           
Indonesia as a country with thousands of islands that have natural and diverse population consisting of hundreds of ethnic culture, and customs are held. Indeed Indonesia has the potential of natural and cultural attractions are great travelers so that always invites the world to come. The potential to be developed as an economic activity that can generate foreign exchange.
Basically the goal to develop the country's tourism industry is to increase state revenue income. As for profits - profits that are expected with the development of tourism infrastructure in a region or an area such as a rising industry, especially those related to tourist services such as activities of travel agencies, transportation, hospitality, restaurant, arts and culture of the area. Therefore needs further promotion.
Tourism promotion is needed in an effort to attract more tourists to Indonesia. Grace of the natural beauty of Mother Earth to be superior in the eyes of foreign tourists as well archipelago. Like a product, the packaging must be beautiful Indonesian tourism promotion in order to attract attention. This looks great capital has not been matched with a maximum promotional efforts. According Esthy Reko Astuti, Director General of Tourism Marketing Kemenparekraf, a targeted promotion strategy to market the tourism product, one of Indonesia's natural potential. However, unfortunately several factors, such as access and facilities, inadequate hinder the development of tourism in Indonesia.
Need attention from other related sectors were very influential. For example, from the central and local governments that have tourism potential. If you would like to promote a local area but no less care and tourism as their primary sector, it will be difficult to develop. Thus the necessary awareness of the central government and local governments are also not behind the private sector to develop tourism development. It is important for a balance carried people's lives, both economically, socio-cultural, and other sectors.

B. Problems
1.Why tourism can boost the economy of Indonesia?
2.How to develop the tourism industry in Indonesia?


C. Destination
To find out how to develop the tourism industry in Indonesia so as to improve the economy of Indonesia

D. Benefit
1.Encourage regional development in order to increase the income of the people and the government
2.Increase the number of tourists both domestic and foreign
3.Increasing the competitiveness of the national tourism businesses
4.Understanding of the scope of the macro economy, especially in Indonesia.
5. Preserve the culture and customs in Indonesia and introduce the world to the international
6. Useful for writers and readers to gain knowledge and information about the tourism industry and increase foreign exchange.

E. Approach
1.Gather information from various sources.
2. Literature approach.


II.    DISCUSSION
A.   Indonesia's tourism industry to boost the economy

Various international organizations such as the UN, World Bank and World Tourism Organization (WTO), has recognized that tourism is an integral part of human life, especially regarding social and economic activities. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), cumulatively, the tourism sector is able to employ about 230 million jobs and contributes hundreds of billions of dollars to the economy in many countries. Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, in the year 2010, the number of tourist arrivals to Indonesia from 20 entrances, some 7 million people (up approximately 10.74% over the previous year), with the average stay for 7-8 days and average average expenditure of approximately U.S. $ 995 (in 2009). These data indicate that in the perspective of national development, the tourism sector has contributed significantly to the increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), especially when associated with Hospitality And Restaurant Sectors.
Various strategies and promotion of tourism product development both on public and private. From the government is necessary to change the policy priorities so that the role of facilitator can be optimized to anticipate this. On the other hand there is the portion of the activities that must be prepared and implemented by the private sector, which has the sense of business because it is the nature of business-oriented activities. By simple division such promotional efforts will be taken to the steps where the central government to the country-image promotion, regional destination promotion perform in accordance with their respective areas of excellence, while private industry or product promotion perform each industry. Governmental duties primarily as a facilitator for the activities undertaken by the private sector tourism may grow more rapidly. Facilitator's role here can be interpreted as creating a comfortable climate for perpetrators of cultural activities and tourism can be developed efficiently and effectively.
Synergistic cooperation between local governments, the private sector and the community in developing the tourism sector in the region, so as to realize a good tourism management in all areas of support, so it can have a significant impact on tourist attraction, which in turn will increase revenue, income communities, and also contributed to the increase in foreign exchange. Local Governments should give special attention to improving the success of the tourism sector, such as by allocating budget funds proportionate to finance the construction of tourism infrastructure (such as roads, electricity, and telecommunications), facilitate public and private sector in managing tourism potential (such as cultural tourism and travel nature), as well as the promotion and marketing of tourism potential in the region. Synergy of three pillars of tourism management, the local government, private sector, and communities, is a major force in improving the development of the tourism sector. Weakness role of one of the pillars, would greatly hamper efforts to develop tourism.

B. How to improve Indonesia Tourism
Various methods Kemenparekraf to introduce Indonesia to the world community. Currently, Indonesia is aggressively promoting tourism through international events. For the sake of expanding, formed the Indonesian Tourism Promotion Board (ARDI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy (Kemenparekraf). Chairman of ARDI, Yanti Sukamdani have 3 final step in maximizing the promotion of tourism, namely:


1. Promotion during low season
Months flooded or high tourist season is during the holidays, especially school holidays. Meanwhile, the tourism business rate would still walk despite low season. Chairman of ARDI, Yanti Sukamdani explained several ways to enliven tourism low season time by giving cheap tickets for onward travel and discounts are also interesting from the hotel. A lonely traveler season, usually lasts from late January to March and October to early December. At that moment, these hotels give discounts and promos are interesting, to keep attract tourists.

2. Creative Economy
Batik is known to foreign tourists. Following batik, woven cloth began to manifest themselves. Not only that, carvings and wood carvings typical of Indonesia also appeared to attract the attention of the tourists. Various kinds of handicrafts typical of the region could be a trigger for tourism. In addition to crafts, fairs and international events was the main attraction for tourists. Art exhibitions and theater performances are often visited by the actors and art lovers from abroad. Indirectly, their arrival also bring in foreign exchange for the country.



3. Green tourism
Currently, green tourism or eco-tourism is booming in the traveler. Traveling with responsibility for nature, many people have become conscious. To increase the awareness, ARDI will be more incentive to promote this type of tourism. In addition to raising awareness of tourists, ecotourism is also very helpful natural beauty. With the subdued nature, many tourists who will continue to fall in love with Indonesia. As a tropical country with diverse tourism destination, Indonesia could attract foreign tourists (tourists) and domestic (domestic tourists). However, tourism is still a lot of infrastructure that needs to be fixed. On that basis, the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy (Kemenparekraf) invite other ministries to improve the tourism infrastructure of the country.

4. Technology and tourism
Internet is not simply a mere technological findings, but also a teacher to educate people find various information (including information on tourism) he wants, so it makes life a lot easier. Travelers now can not wait for the information that is usually provided through a travel service bureau or other organization. They would rather look for yourself what's on his mind so as to ensure that the products chosen are the best.
With the internet, the information needed for a trip is available mainly in the form of the World Wide Web or the Web. Consumers can now directly related to the resources without going through intermediaries. It must be believed that the Web is an ideal channel and a powerful tool for promoting a tourist destination, with a very low cost. But in this competition that must be considered, as it is our main weapon, is the quality of the information itself. Because tourists will base their decision to visit a tourist attraction only to the range of information available to them on the Web. Once they got the wrong information then the advantages of this technology will be of no use.


III. CONCLUSION
The Indonesian tourism players should take careful planning and focused to capture opportunities that will be passing in our region. Exploiting opportunities should be made ​​through a "re-positioning" the existence of each activity since the beginning of tourism investment, promotion, creation of tourism products, international marketing network setup, and preparation of qualified human resources. All of this must be prepared to meet the international standards so as to be more competitive and attractive, compared with similar activities from countries around Indonesia.
Besides the tourism sub-sector was expected to move the people's economy, because the sector is considered the most prepared in terms of facilities, infrastructure and facilities compared to other business sectors. This expectation is developed in a community empowerment strategy through the development of a community-based tourism or community-based tourism



Daftar Pustaka

Huda, Syamsul 2009. “Analisis Penerimaan Devisa sector pariwisata dan factor – factor yang mempengaruhi di provinsi Jawa Timur”. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen Vol.7 No.1 Hal 130 – 316
Joehastanti, Jenny. 2012. “Strategi Pemasaran Wisata Alam Untuk Meningkatkan Kunjungan Wisatawan Di Kawasan Wisata Kabupaten Kediri”. Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen Vol.1 No.2 Hal 61 – 73
Raharjana, Destha Titi. 2012, “Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Perencanaan dan Pengelolaan Pariwisata”. Jurnal Nasional Pariwisata Vol.4 No.1 Hal 12 – 25
Wahab, S. 2003. Manajemen Kepariwisataan, Cetakan Keempat.Jakarta: PT Pradnya Paramita



30.11.12

Teori Etika Bisnis


Etika, kata-kata ini sering kita dengar dalam artian sebagai sebuah perilaku dari seseorang, baik itu buruk ataupun baik. Etika itu sendiri dari kata ethos (bahasa Yunani) yang berarti karakter, watak kesusilaan atau adat. Perkembangan etika yaitu Studi tentang kebiasaan manusia berdasarkan kesepakatan, menurut ruang dan waktu yang berbeda, yang menggambarkan perangai manusia dalam kehidupan pada umumnya Menurut Kamus Besar Bhs. Indonesia (1995) Etika adalah Nilai mengenai benar dan salah yang dianut suatu golongan atau masyarakat. Etika adalah Ilmu tentang apa yang baik dan yang buruk, tentang hak dan kewajiban moral. Menurut Maryani & Ludigdo (2001) “Etika adalah Seperangkat aturan atau norma atau pedoman yang mengatur perilaku manusia, baik yang harus dilakukan maupun yang harus ditinggalkan yang di anut oleh sekelompok atau segolongan masyarakat atau profesi”.

Fungsi Etika
ü  Sarana untuk memperoleh orientasi kritis berhadapan dengan pelbagai moralitas yang membingungkan.
ü   Etika ingin menampilkanketrampilan intelektual yaitu ketrampilan untuk berargumentasi secara rasional dan kritis.
ü   Orientasi etis ini diperlukan dalam mengabil sikap yang wajar dalam suasana pluralisme

MACAM-MACAM ETIKA
Ada dua macam etika yang harus kita pahami bersama dalam menentukan baik dan buruknya prilaku manusia :

1.      ETIKA DESKRIPTIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha meneropong secara kritis dan rasional sikap dan prilaku manusia dan apa yang dikejar oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika deskriptif memberikan fakta sebagai dasar untuk mengambil keputusan tentang prilaku atau sikap yang mau diambil.
2.      ETIKA NORMATIF, yaitu etika yang berusaha menetapkan berbagai sikap dan pola prilaku ideal yang seharusnya dimiliki oleh manusia dalam hidup ini sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai. Etika normatif memberi penilaian sekaligus member norma sebagai dasar dan kerangka tindakan yang akan diputuskan.
Etika secara umum dapat dibagi menjadi :
3.      ETIKA UMUM, berbicara mengenai kondisi-kondisi dasar bagaimana manusia bertindak secara etis, bagaimana manusia mengambil keputusan etis, teori-teori etika dan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar yang menjadi pegangan bagi manusia dalam bertindak serta tolak ukur dalam menilai baik atau buruknya suatu tindakan. Etika umum dapat di analogkan dengan ilmu pengetahuan, yang membahas mengenai pengertian umum dan teori-teori.
4.     ETIKA KHUSUS, merupakan penerapan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar dalam bidang kehidupan yang khusus. Penerapan ini bisa berwujud : Bagaimana saya mengambil keputusan dan bertindak dalam bidang kehidupan dan kegiatan khusus yang saya lakukan, yang didasari oleh cara, teori dan prinsip-prinsip moral dasar. Namun, penerapan itu dapat juga berwujud : Bagaimana saya menilai perilaku saya dan orang lain dalam bidang kegiatan dan kehidupan khusus yang dilatarbelakangi oleh kondisi yang memungkinkan manusia bertindak etis : cara bagaimana manusia mengambil suatu keputusan atau tidankan, dan teori serta prinsip moral dasar yang ada dibaliknya.

Antara  etika  dengan  etiket  terdapat persamaan  yaitu :
ü  Etika  dan etiket menyangkut perilaku manusia. Istilah tersebut dipakai mengenai manusia tidak mengenai binatang karena binatang tidak mengenal etika maupun  etiket.
ü  Kedua-duanya mengatur perilaku manusia secara normatif artinya memberi norma bagi perilaku manusia dan dengan demikian menyatakan apa yag harus dilakukan dan apa yang tidak boleh dilakukan. Justru karena sifatnya normatif maka kedua istilah tersebut sering dicampuradukkan.

Sedangkan perbedaannya yaitu:
ü  Etika adalah niat, apakah perbuatan tersebut boleh dilakukan sesuia dengan pertimbangan baik atau buruk sebagai akibatnya, sedangkan eyiket adalah cara melakukan perbuatan benar sesuai dengan yang diharapkan;
ü   Etika adalah batiniah sedangkan etiket lahiriah;
ü  Etika bersifat absolut, sedangkan etiket bersifat relative;
ü  Etika berlaku ada saat ada atau tidaknya orang lain, sedangkan etiket butuh orang lain;

Sumber :


 

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